Here is a glossary of terms used in the project. The idea is to add to the glossary as the project progresses. If you see any terms on this website that you think should be in the glossary, please contact us. It is a work in progress. Usually the source of the definition given here is provide as a web address. There also an excellent database maintained by IUFRO https://www.iufro.org/science/special/silvavoc/silvaterm/query-silvaterm-database/
APC – An article processing charge, also known as a publication fee, is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal. https://www.nature.com/openresearch/publishing-with-npg/article-processing-charges-faqs/ and https://www.openaire.eu/towards-full-open-access-in-2020-from-eua-and-a-new-vision-for-more-meaningful-research-impact-assessment-from-science-europe
auxiliary data – In Earth Observation, auxiliary data are all othser data files used to generate a product (e.g. satellite image), other than the direct measurements of the instrument. Auxiliary data include calibration data that was measured on-board but are not part of the main measurements of the instrument; external calibration files from sources other than the satellite; processor configuration files, and any other files needed by instrument processors. https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/data-access/auxiliary-data
biodiversity – the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a habitat, a high level of which is usually considered to be important and desirable. https://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/biodiversity-and-forest-ecosystems-in-europe-1
Bioeconomy – Bioeconomy is Europe’s response to key environmental challenges the world is facing already today. It is meant to reduce the dependence on natural resources, transform manufacturing, promote sustainable production of renewable resources from land, fisheries and aquaculture and their conversion into food, feed, fibre, bio-based products and bio-energy, while growing new jobs and industries. http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/bioeconomy
Biomass – include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), sawill waste, wood chips. https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/beeh-9uhlqv mapping of forest biomass https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717313580
biomass equation – mathematical functions that relate oven-dry biomass per tree as a function of a single or a combination of tree dimensions
Biometry – the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena
bridging functions – methods used to transform national data into estimates comparable between countries.
canopy cover – the proportion of ground area under tree crowns
canopy fuel loads – in the context of forest fire risk, it is an indication of the amount of fuel wood available in the canopy of a forest to a spreading fire. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176114
CAP – The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of subsidies and support programmes for agriculture operated by the European Union. CAP combines direct payments to farmers together with price/market supports. It currently accounts for about 62% of the EU’s budget. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/cap-overview_en
carbon sequestration – Biological carbon sequestration (carbon sink) is a biochemical process by which atmospheric carbon is absorbed by living organisms, including trees, soil micro-organisms, and crops, and involving the storage of carbon in soils, with the potential to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide level. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=286
climate change – a significant change in the measures of climate, such as temperature, rainfall, or wind, lasting for an extended period – decades or longer. The Earth’s climate has changed many times during the planet’s history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. What’s different about this period of the earth’s history is that human activities are significantly contributing to natural climate change through our emissions of greenhouse gases. http://www.epa.ie/climate/communicatingclimatescience/whatisclimatechange/
Computree open source platform – a processing platform for 3D points clouds in forestry. It is managed by the Computree group, composed of GIP ECOFOR, ONF, Arts et Métiers Paristech, IGN, INRA and Université de Sherbrooke. http://computree.onf.fr/?lang=en
Consortium Agreement – a contract regulating the rights and obligations among the Participants of an EU Project with reference to management structures and financial distribution but also concerning confidentiality, liability and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). http://www.desca-2020.eu/
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) – a multilateral treaty: conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources. https://www.cbd.int/
Copernicus – previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation. http://www.copernicus.eu/
COST Action E39 – Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing. The main objective of the Action is to increase the knowledge about the contribution that forests, trees and natural places make, and might make, to the health and well-being of people in Europe. The Action aims specifically to set out the key health priorities identified within European countries and the possibility for forestry to contribute to meeting them, to engage health policy interests in the identification of information gaps in this field and to develop a network of researchers and research institutions in forestry, health, environment and the social sciences. http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/E39
COST Action E4 – Forest reserves research network (FR-NET) http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/E4
COST Action E43 – Harmonisation of National Inventories in Europe : Techniques for Common Reporting. The main objective of the Action is to improve and harmonize the existing national forest resource inventories in Europe. The secondary objectives are to support new inventories in such a way that inventories will meet national, European and global level requirements in supplying up-to-date, harmonized and transparent forest resource information, and to promote the use of scientifically sound and validated methods in forest inventory designs, data collection and data analysis. http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/E43
Cost Action USEWOOD, FPS Action FP1001. Improving Data and Information on the Potential Supply of Wood Resources; A European Approach from Multisource National Forest Inventories. https://sites.google.com/site/costactionfp1001/
Cost Action FORSYS, FPS COST Action FP0804. Forest Management Decision Support Systems. http://www.forestdss.org/CoP/
Cost Action ORCHESTRA. FPS COST Action FP1207 Orchestrating forest-related policy analysis in Europe. https://sites.google.com/site/costactionfp1207/about
Data Management Plan (DMP) – describes the data management life cycle for the data to be collected, processed and/or generated by a Horizon 2020 project. http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/docs/h2020-funding-guide/cross-cutting-issues/open-access-data-management/data-management_en.htm
decision making – the process of making important decisions. e.g. Multiple Criteria Decision-Making in Forest Planning or decision making in forest related policies.
DG Agriculture and Rural Development. The DG AGRI is responsible for the European Union policy area of agriculture and rural development. The work of the DG AGRI is closely linked with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/index_en and focus on forestry as an example https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/forestry-measures-fulfil-economic-environmental-and-social-objectives-2018-mar-21_en
DG Enterprise and Industry, now under DG GROW. DG GROW’s responsibilities were previously covered by the Directorate-General for Internal Market (DG MARKT) and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry (DG ENTR). This Commission department is responsible for EU policy on the single market, industry, entrepreneurship and small businesses. https://ec.europa.eu/info/departments/internal-market-industry-entrepreneurship-and-smes_en
DG Environment – European Commission department responsible for EU policy on the environment. It aims to protect, preserve and improve the environment for present and future generations, proposing and implementing policies that ensure a high level of environmental protection and preserve the quality of life of EU citizens. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/environment/index_en.htm
diameter distribution – the way in which trees in a forest stand are spread across different diameter classes. Knowing the diameter distribution of a forest stand is of great interest to forest managers for the evaluation of forest resources and scheduling the future silvicultural treatments. e.g. What is a diameter distribution? by Oscar Garcıa.
Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication Plan. Deliverable 6.1 of the DIABOLO project. This plan outlines the dissemination and communication activities of the project.
DIABOLO – Distributed, integrated and harmonised forest information for bioeconomy outlooks
Earth Observation – Earth observation (EO) is the gathering of information about planet Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems via remote sensing technologies supplemented by earth surveying techniques, encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of data. Earth observation is used to monitor and assess the status of, and changes in, the natural environment and the built environment.
EC space-based applications – EU space policy aims to tackle some of the most pressing challenges today, such as fighting climate change, helping to stimulate technological innovation, and providing socio-economic benefits to citizens. Space technology, data and services have become indispensable in the lives of Europeans. We rely on them when using mobile phones and car navigation systems, watching satellite TV, and withdrawing money. Satellites also provide immediate information when disasters, such as earthquakes, forest fires or floods strike, enabling better coordination between emergency and rescue teams. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/space_en
Ecosystem – a community made up of living organisms and non-living components such as air, water and mineral soil, all interacting as a system. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem
ecosystem goods and services – The number of goods and services provided by forest is large; a non-exhaustive list is: Wood and non-wood products: e.g. biomass based energy; Climate regulation: e.g. C-sequestration; Pollution control; Soil protection and formation: e.g. erosion control; Nutrients cycling; Biodiversity protection; Water regulation and supply; Recreation; Disturbance regulation. http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/activities/forest-ecosystem-services/ and http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/info/pubs/docs/ecosystem.pdf
EEA GISC project (http://gisc.ew.eea.europa.eu/about-gisc)
EFDAC – The European Forest Data Center (EFDAC) aims at becoming a focal point for policy relevant forest data and information by hosting and pointing to relevant forest information as well as providing web-based tools for accessing information located in EFDAC. http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/metadata/portals/efdac-european-forest-data-centre
EFDM –The European Forestry Dynamics Model (EFDM) simulates the development of the forest and estimates volume of wood harvested for any given forested area. This estimate can be broken down by, for example, species, site quality, management regime and ownership category. The EFDM was conceived as a flexible system for harmonised forestry modelling. It was developed to process data from Europe’s National Forest Inventories. Since this data is neither standardised nor necessarily available outside of its owner country, the EFDM has been developed as a modular system in freely available software (R). https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/scientific-tool/european-forestry-dynamics-model-efdm
EFFIS – The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) supports the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU countries and provides the European Commission services and the European Parliament with updated and reliable information on wildland fires in Europe. In 2015, EFFIS became one of the components of the Emergency Management Services in the EU Copernicus program. http://effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
EFI ThinkForest – a European high-level forum on the future of forests. It provides: A unique science-policy interface; Inspiring and dynamic science-policy dialogue. ThinkForest works to identify information needs related to forest policy questions and build a common understanding of the problems at hand. By helping policy makers navigate through the wealth of information on offer and providing them with the best available expertise and the latest research-based information from the scientific community it enables informed decision making on strategic forest issues. https://www.efi.int/policysupport/thinkforest
EFORWOOD – “Tools for Sustainability Impact Assessment of the Forestry-Wood Chain”. 2005 – 2009. EFORWOOD, an EU-financed research programme, developed ToSIA, a computerised decision-support tool that helps decision-makers in politics, government departments, industry, and other players to make sound and reliable decisions on forestry and forest products manufacturing and consumption leading to sustainable development. http://www.innovawood.com/eforwood/
embargo period – In academic publishing, an embargo is a period during which access to academic journals is not allowed to users who have not paid for access (or have access through their institution). https://blogs.openaire.eu/?p=1085
end-users – Research end‑user is defined as an individual, community or organisation external to academia that will directly use or directly benefit from the output, outcome or results of the research. https://www.iprhelpdesk.eu/sites/default/files/newsdocuments/FS-Plan-for-the-exploitation-and-dissemination-of-results_1.pdf
ENFIN – National Forest Inventories (NFIs) represent comprehensive, reliable, large-scale monitoring systems. ENFIN serves as a European network to promote NFIs, harmonise forest information and support decision makers in a broad range of forest related policies. The overall objectives of ENFIN are to i) provide a platform for the harmonisation of forest inventory information at European scale; ii) optimise synergies between NFIs and promote new knowledge and enhanced methods; iii) support forest policies with harmonised forest information and adapt data collection to new emerging policy needs. http://enfin.info/
EO based pan-European disturbance monitoring system – https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/SDICS/gse-forest-monitoring http://diabolo-project.eu/about/monitoring-disturbances-in-european-forests-based-on-space-data/
EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 – The EU Biodiversity Strategy aims to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU and help stop global biodiversity loss by 2020. It reflects the commitments taken by the EU in 2010, within the international Convention on Biological Diversity. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/strategy/index_en.htm
EU Bioeconomy Strategy – The bioeconomy comprises those parts of the economy that use renewable biological resources from land and sea – such as crops, forests, fish, animals and micro-organisms – to produce food, materials and energy. Europe’s Bioeconomy Strategy addresses the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into vital products and bio-energy. https://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/index.cfm?pg=policy&lib=strategy
EU Birds and Habitats Directives – The Habitats Directive ensures the conservation of a wide range of rare, threatened or endemic animal and plant species. Some 200 rare and characteristic habitat types are also targeted for conservation. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm The Birds Directive provides a legal framework, binding for all Member States, for the protection of all wild birds in the EU, including their eggs, nests and habitats. These two Directives (Birds & Habitat) form the cornerstone of Europe’s nature conservation policy. They are built around two pillars: the Natura 2000 Network of protected sites and the strict system of species protection.
EU Forest Strategy (EC 2013) – a new EU Forest Strategy which responds to the new challenges facing forests and the forest sector. The new Strategy gives a new framework in response to the increasing demands put on forests and to significant societal and political changes that have affected forests over the last 15 years. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/forest/strategy_en
EU Renewable Energy Directive – establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. It requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020 – to be achieved through the attainment of individual national targets. All EU countries must also ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/renewable-energy-directive
EU Timber Regulation – The EU Timber Regulation came into force on 3 March 2013. It prohibits operators in Europe from placing illegally harvested timber and products derived from illegal timber on the EU market. ‘Legal’ timber is defined as timber produced in compliance with the laws of the country where it is harvested. http://www.euflegt.efi.int/what-is-the-eu-timber-regulation-
EU Water Framework Directive – integrated river basin management for Europe http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html
EUFODOS – FP7 project “European Forest Downstream Services – Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damages” https://www.eufodos.info/
European Environment Agency – provides sound, independent information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and the general public. In close collaboration with the European Environmental Information and Observation Network (Eionet) and its 33-member countries, the EEA gathers data and produces assessments on a wide range of topics related to the environment. https://www.eea.europa.eu/
European Forest Disturbance Monitoring System (EFDMS) – part of teh DIABOLo project, based on Sentinel 2 data that addresses two information needs: A -European scale harmonised data on forest disturbances, types of disturbances include: fire, storm, drought, biotic damages, significant harvesting operations. http://diabolo-project.eu/about/structure/#WP4 related studies: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/towards-operational-monitoring-forest-canopy-disturbance-evergreen-rain-forests-test-case; https://journal.societyofirishforesters.ie/index.php/forestry/article/viewFile/10850/9904
European Forest Fire Information System network (EFFIS) – supports the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU countries and provides the European Commission services and the European Parliament with updated and reliable information on wildland fires in Europe. http://effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
European Forestry Dynamics Model (EFDM) – simulates the development of the forest and estimates volume of wood harvested for any given forested area. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/scientific-tool/european-forestry-dynamics-model-efdm
European National Forest Inventory Network (ENFIN) – National Forest Inventories (NFIs) represent comprehensive, reliable, large-scale monitoring systems. ENFIN serves as a European network to promote NFIs, harmonise forest information and support decision makers in a broad range of forest related policies. The overall objectives of ENFIN are to • provide a platform for the harmonisation of forest inventory information at European scale • optimise synergies between NFIs and promote new knowledge and enhanced methods • support forest policies with harmonised forest information and adapt data collection to new emerging policy needs. http://enfin.info/
European Sentinel satellite system – The European Space Agency, ESA has developed a new family of missions called Sentinels specifically for the operational needs of the Copernicus programme. Each Sentinel mission is based on a constellation of two satellites to fulfil revisit and coverage requirements, providing robust datasets for Copernicus Services. https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Overview4
European shared environmental information systems, SEIS – established to improve the collection, exchange and use of environmental data and information across Europe. https://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/shared-environmental-information-system-1/shared-environmental-information-system
Eurostat – the statistical office of the European Union. Its mission is to provide high quality statistics for Europe. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/about/overview
FAIR principles – a set of guiding principles to make data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Re-usable. http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-data-mgt_en.pdf
FAO/UNECE Forestry and Timber Section – FAO United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Forestry and Timber Section monitor the state of forests in the region, help in developing evidence-based policies for sustainable forest management, communicate about the many products and ecosystem services provided to society and assist countries to monitor and manage forests http://www.unece.org/forests/welcome.html
FIRE PARADOX – A European research project 2006-2010 set out to create a scientific and technical basis in order to define which new practices and integrated management policies will ensure Europe’s ability to prevent and fight fires most effectively. http://www.fireparadox.org/project.php
FISE – Forest Information System for Europe. FISE is the hub for data and information on forests and forestry in Europe. Its development follows the new European Union Forest Strategy which calls for strengthening the forest knowledge base to better understand the complex environmental and societal challenges that the forest sector faces. FISE provides information on the multifunctional role of forests and forest resources from diverse data sources, including JRC datasets and quantitative indicators collected in the context of Forest Europe. It comprises datasets and services from EFDAC – the European Forest Data Centre – and EFFIS – the European Forest Fire Information System. http://data.jrc.ec.europa.eu/document/FISE_2018_04_05_18_33.pdf
FLEGT – Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. The EU’s FLEGT Action Plan was established in 2003. It aims to reduce illegal logging by strengthening sustainable and legal forest management, improving governance and promoting trade in legally produced timber. http://www.flegt.org/
EU Timber Regulation – The EU Timber Regulation has since 2013 aimed to reduce illegal logging by ensuring that no illegal timber or timber products can be sold in the EU. It was created as part of the EU’s FLEGTAction Plan. http://www.euflegt.efi.int/eutr
Habitats Directive – ensures the conservation of a wide range of rare, threatened or endemic animal and plant species. Some 200 rare and characteristic habitat types are also targeted for conservation in their own right. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm
FMI – forest management inventory
forest area – Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectares (ha). The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters (m) at maturity in situ. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad665e/ad665e06.htm Other definitions exist
Forest based outdoor recreation – walking for pleasure, attending family gatherings, visiting nature centers, sightseeing, driving for pleasure, picnicking, viewing or photographing natural scenery, and visiting historic sites. Very far down the list are high-technology, highskill activities such as rock climbing and whitewater kayaking that often occupy much of the attention of forest recreation managers. https://www.srs.fs.fed.us/sustain/report/pdf/chapter_11e.pdf
forest data providers – those groups providing forest monitoring or assessment data see also https://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/195195_en.html
Forest disturbance monitoring – uses change detection algorithms for continuous monitoring of forest disturbance (wind damage, pest outbreaks, snow damage) at high temporal frequencies. See http://diabolo-project.eu/about/structure/#WP4
Forest Europe SFM criteria and indicators – the basic tools for defining and promoting sustainable forest management http://foresteurope.org/sfm-criteria-indicators2/
Forest inventory – systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. http://www.fao.org/sustainable-forest-management/toolbox/modules/forest-inventory/basic-knowledge/en/?type=111
Forest sector outlooks (UNECE 2011) – The European Forest Sector Outlook Study II (EFSOS II) is the latest in a series of studies, to provide a regular outlook report for the European forest sector. All these studies have aimed to map out possible or likely future developments, on the basis of past trends, as a contribution to evidence-based policy formulation and decision making. http://www.unece.org/index.php?id=26863
Forest Strategy – a new framework in response to the increasing demands put on forests and to significant societal and political changes that have affected forests over the last 15 years. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/forest/strategy_en
forest-based industries – consist of four major sectors: woodworking, furniture, pulp and paper manufacturing and converting, and printing https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/industries/forest-based_en
FORSYS (FP0804) – see Cost Action FORSYS
FP7 – the short name for the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. This was the EU’s main instrument for funding research in Europe and ran from 2007-2013. https://ec.europa.eu/research/fp7/index_en.cfm?pg=understanding
EUFODOS – a European research project that focused on the development of operational so called ‘Forest Downstream Services’ for the surveying of forest damage and on the investigation of forest parameters which can be used for economic assessments or as the basis for the targeted management of protective forests. These type of services are highly requested by various forest authorities in Europe. https://www.eufodos.info/content/eufodos-glance.html
Framework Contract of ENFIN – Framework contract for the provision of forest data and services in support to the European Forest Data Centre, duration: 2018-2022. The aim of this framework contract is to support the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission in further developing, improving, and strengthening the forest knowledge base at the European level. The outputs will provide scientifically sound forest information and harmonised data sets. They will serve European decision makers as reliable, sound, and timely relevant forest information. This contract represents a continuation and enhancement of the work and collaboration provided within the two previous framework contracts. http://enfin.info/
FTP with its NSGs – Forest Based Technology Platform with National Support Groups. The National Support Groups (NSGs) are vital focal points for FTP at the national level. Typically, they are made up of various forest-based sector stakeholder groups in a specific country and bring together researchers and industry representatives, as well as national financial and governmental bodies. http://new-www.forestplatform.org/#!/pages/46
GDPR – A new law around the protection of Personal Data, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) comes into force across Europe 25 May 2018. http://www.ucd.ie/gdpr/ and http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-17-1441_en.htm
general and flexible estimation procedures – Elaborate general, flexible and powerful estimation procedures that combine NFI field data and auxiliary information from remote sensing and maps http://diabolo-project.eu/about/structure/#WP2
GEOSS – Global Earth Observation System of Systems is a set of coordinated, independent Earth observation, information and processing systems that interact and provide access to diverse information for a broad range of users in both public and private sectors https://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.php
global monitoring (and management) system – a project run the European Space Agency to enable its European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) has monitoring systems for the domains of Ground Stations, Control Centre Systems and Infrastructure and Network Systems, there is no End-to-End Monitoring system providing a consolidated view of the monitoring information of all of these separate systems.The goal of the study was to create a Global Monitoring and Management system which will interface the above mentioned systems and will be able to provide a consolidated view of all this information. https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/Shaping_the_Future/Global_Monitoring_and_Management_System
Globallometree – an international web platform to share and provide access to tree allometric equations, wood densities, biomass expansion factors and raw data. http://www.globallometree.org/
GLOBIOM – A global model to assess competition for land use between agriculture, bioenergy, and forestry. IIASA’s Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) is used to analyse the competition for land use between agriculture, forestry, and bioenergy, which are the main land-based production sectors. As such, the model can provide scientists and policymakers with the means to assess, on a global basis, the rational production of food, forest fiber, and bioenergy, all of which contribute to human welfare. http://www.globiom.org/
ground-based sampling data – Remote sensing investigations often involve sampling on the ground to estimate the mean of some property within ground resolution elements. Investigators have used classical statistics to determine the size of sample required to produce a desired precision. However, classical statistics is based on assumptions that do not hold when the target population is spatially dependent. Remotely sensed data and ground cover are usually spatially correlated, and in these circumstances the size of sample required will be less when sampling is done on a regular grid. This is demonstrated for several variables measured at the ground.
ISIB-04a-2014 – this was the H2020 identifier for the topic “Improved forest data” which funded the DIABOLO project. A sister project “ALTERFOR” was funded from topic ISIB-04b-2015 “Improved forest management models”. https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/isib-04a-2014.html
Harmonisation – in NFIs is the process of making data and estimates comparable across administrative borders. Common reference definitions must be agreed in the countries involved in the harmonisation process. Of relevance: http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/E43
harmonised forest data – harmonisation procedures are agreed by the participant countries. These included the establishment of a common nomenclature for forest tree species among participant countries for the most common trees and the establishment of standardised procedures for the provision of data. https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata2016123
harmonised information – harmonisation of information is the process of bringing together data of different file formats, naming conventions, and columns, and transforming it into one cohesive data set.
Research Impact – the definition of research impact really depends on what you might do with the results of research. As a researcher, impact may be a contribution that research makes to our understanding of a subject, advances to methods, to theories and the application of results. But research impact can also make a contribution to society and the economy. It is important that we are able to demonstrate the impact.
INSPIRE – Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe. The INSPIRE Directive aims to create a European Union spatial data infrastructure for the purposes of EU environmental policies and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. This European Spatial Data Infrastructure will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations, facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe and assist in policy-making across boundaries. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications. The Directive came into force on 15 May 2007 and will be implemented in various stages, with full implementation required by 2021. https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/
INTEGRAL Project – “Future-oriented integrated management of European forest landscapes”. A FP7 funded project, which identified incoherence within and between trans-national, national and local forest-related land use policies, focusing on the central issue of mismatches between the policies and their implementation at the landscape level. The project set out to improve existing policy and management approaches capable of delivering a better balance between multiple and conflicting demands for forest goods and services. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/99823_en.html
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) – general term for the assignment of property rights through patents, copyrights and trademarks. https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3236
International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) – operates under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) – A programme aiming at a comprehensive compilation of information on the condition of forests in Europe and beyond. http://icp-forests.net/
international reporting obligations – Reporting obligations are requirements to provide information agreed between countries and international bodies such as the EEA or international conventions, e.g. Kyoto, COP. Reporting obligations provide the basis for most environmental information flows. https://rod.eionet.europa.eu/
JRC’s EFFIS – See European Forest Fire Information System network (EFFIS).
Kyoto Protocol – An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. https://unfccc.int/process/the-kyoto-protocol
Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) – The rate of build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere can be reduced by taking advantage of the fact that atmospheric CO2 can accumulate as carbon in vegetation and soils in terrestrial ecosystems. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere is referred to as a “sink”. Human activities impact terrestrial sinks, through land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities, consequently, the exchange of CO2 (carbon cycle) between the terrestrial biosphere system and the atmosphere is altered. https://unfccc.int/topics/land-use/workstreams/land-use–land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf
LULUCF reporting – Under EU legislation adopted in May 2018, EU Member States have to ensure that greenhouse gas emissions from land use, land use change or forestry are offset by at least an equivalent removal of CO₂ from the atmosphere in the period 2021 to 2030. The Regulation sets a binding commitment for each Member State to ensure that accounted emissions from land use are entirely compensated by an equivalent removal of CO₂ from the atmosphere through action in the sector. This is known as the “no debit” rule. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/lulucf_en
Landsat 8 – satellite images the entire Earth every 16 days in an 8-day offset from Landsat 7. Data collected by the instruments onboard the satellite are available to download at no charge from EarthExplorer, GloVis, or the LandsatLook Viewer within 24 hours of acquisition. https://landsat.usgs.gov/landsat-8
LIDAR – Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure variable distances to the Earth. ~DIABOLO will use data from terrestrial Lidar, airborne lidar and space borne lidar. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/measuring-reporting/remote-sensing/13425
Metadata – a set of data that describes and gives information about other data.
Millennium Development Goals, MDGs – The eight MDGs ranged from halving extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015, included Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/environ.shtml
Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs – these 17 Goals build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals and aim to go further to end all forms of poverty. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/
Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) – a European ministerial level voluntary political process for the promotion of sustainable management of European forests. http://foresteurope.org/
Natura 2000 – a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas designated respectively under the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/index_en.htm
near real time disturbance mapping – change detection of forest cover or condition may be provided by VHR remote sensing. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8035208/?reload=true
NFI – see national forest inventory
non-wood forest products (NWFP) – goods of biological origin other than wood derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests http://www.fao.org/forestry/nwfp/6388/en/
ORCHESTRA – see Cost Action ORCHESTRA.
policy decision makers – individuals or groups responsible at national or EU level for making decisions that impact on forestry or use forest data. DIABOLO’s WP1 reviewed policy analysis of demands for and provision of forest data
private forest owners – individuals or groups that own forests outside state ownership. The average size of a private forest holding in the EU is about 13 hectares. http://www.cepf-eu.org/page/family-forestry
protective functions of forests – in addition to providing wood and non-wood forest products, forests play a protective role in among others: ecosystem conservation, maintaining clean water, reducing the risks of impacts of floods, avalanches, erosion and drought.
REDD+ – The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. It is supported by the technical expertise of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) http://www.un-redd.org/
Reference data – existing data that is used to support or validate new data collection exercises. Reference data gain in value when they are widely re-used and widely referenced. Typically, they do not change overly much in terms of definition, apart from occasional revisions. https://www.silvafennica.fi/pdf/article983.pdf
reference definitions – for stem volume estimations were developed in COST Action E43. In DIABOLO these are compared with the national definition
Renewable Energy Directive – overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. It requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020, to be achieved through the attainment of individual national targets. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/renewable-energy-directive
Rural Development policy – helps the rural areas of the EU to meet the wide range of economic, environmental and social challenges of the 21st century. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rural-development-2014-2020_en
S2BIOM – A European project funded by FP7 from 2013 to 2016. I aimed to deliver a sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support a resource-efficient Bioeconomy in Europe http://www.s2biom.eu/en/
SAR based monitoring – Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). This involves using microwaves. A radar altimeter sends out pulses of microwave signals and record the signal scattered back from the earth surface. The height of the surface can be measured from the time delay of the return signals. In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, microwave pulses are transmitted by an antenna towards the earth surface. The microwave energy scattered back to the spacecraft is measured. The SAR makes use of the radar principle to form an image by utilising the time delay of the backscattered signals. Due to the cloud penetrating property of microwave, SAR is able to acquire “cloud-free” images in all weather. This is especially useful in the tropical regions which are frequently under cloud covers throughout the year. Being an active remote sensing device, it is also capable of night-time operation. https://crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/mw.htm
satellite images – pictures of Earth, including forests taken from space using satellites.
SCAR SWG SBGB – The Bioeconomy Strategic Working Group (BSW) is a thematic working group under the Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR). The SCAR is formed by representatives of the Member States, Candidate and Associated Countries and has a mandate to advise the European Commission and the Member States on the coordination of agricultural research in Europe. https://www.scar-swg-sbgb.eu/home
SEIS (Shared environmental information system) See European shared environmental information systems, SEIS
Sentinel 1 and 2 satellites – Sentinel-1 is the first of the Copernicus Programme satellite constellation conducted by the European Space Agency. https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-1 The Sentinel-2 mission is a land monitoring constellation of two satellites that provide high resolution optical imagery and provide continuity for the current SPOT and Landsat missions. https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-2
SIMWOOD – A European project funded by FP7 2013 – 2017. SIMWOOD aimed to increase the mobilisation of wood from forests and woodlands in Europe. It focused on mobilising forest owners, promoting collaborative forest management and ensuring sustainable forest functions. http://simwood.efi.int/about-the-project.html
Social indicators – numerical measures that describe the well-being of individuals or communities. Indicators comprise of one variable or several components combined into an index. WP3 is developing methods to harmonise social indicators and understand the social
functions of the different forest areas.
SOSIN (Social indicators in Forestry) network – A networking project to develop the standardization and harmonization of social indicators, in order to facilitate the monitoring and management of sustainable forestry and forest use and improve sustainable nature-based recreation and tourism. http://www.ci-sfm.org/news/7/24/About-the-SOSIN-Network.html
Space-born data – remote sensing data collected from satellites
spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbances – patterns of forest change over time and in space.
spatial data – the data or information that identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth, such as natural or constructed features, oceans, forests.
stakeholders – people with an interest or concern in the project.
stand (forest stand) A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a temporary silvicultural or management entity.
Standing Forestry Committee – acts as an advisory and management Committee for specific forestry measures; is a consultation forum that provides expertise in connection with the development of forest-related measures in the framework of various Community policies, such as those on rural development and the environment; provides a venue for exchange of information among Member States, and between Member States and the Commission https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/forest/standing-committee_en
StarTree Project – A European project to support the sustainable exploitation of forest resources for rural development; 2012 to 2016. https://star-tree.eu/
stem volume – In forest management the amount of wood in a forest is represented by stem volume, and volume equations are widely applied using diameter at breast height (DBH) and height to calculate stem volume
SUMFOREST – A transnational ERA-NET programme, focused on reducing fragmentation and maximising the impact of research activities on sustainable forest management and multifunctional forestry https://www.sumforest.org/
sustainable forest management, SFM – management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development. http://foresteurope.org/foresteurope/
multifunctional forestry – management of forests for more than one use. Employing sustainable forest management to balance the economic, ecological and social roles of forests.
sustainable biomass supply – for a sustainable forest industry producing biomass for different end uses, the amount of timber removed from the forest needs to be equal to or less than the amount produced by the forest.
Terrestrial Laser Scanning, TLS/ terrestrial LiDAR techniques – provides a measurement technique that can acquire millimeter-level of detail from the surrounding area, which allows rapid, automatic and periodic estimates of forest inventory attributes. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924271616000204
tree height – the perpendicular distance between the ground level and the level of the top of the tree. WP2 of DIABOLO are developing plot data extraction technology from VHR remote sensing sources to estimate different parameters like tree height.
UNECE statistics – The UNECE Statistical Division focus on raising UNECE countries’ capacity in official statistics by helping national statistical offices and other stakeholders to coordinate their work. Their aims is to address the increasing demand for high quality and comparable data among countries. https://www.unece.org/stats/stats_h.html
UNECE/FAO Outlook studies – The UNECE/FAO Forestry and Timber Section analyses structural developments in the forest sector and produces studies on the long-term outlook for supply and demand for wood as well as other forest goods and services. https://www.unece.org/forests/areas-of-work/policy-dialogue-and-advice/forest-sector-outlook.html
UNESCO Code of Conduct for Social Science Research – Guidelines for research integrity in the social sciences http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Soc_Sci_Code.pdf
UNFF – The UN Forum on Forests is an intergovernmental body to promote “… the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end. http://www.un.org/esa/forests/forum/index.html
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – an international environmental treaty adopted in 1992 entered into force in 1994. Its objective is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system https://unfccc.int/
USEWOOD (FP 1001) – see Cost Action USEWOOD,
VHR remote sensing – Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery provides images with a resolution of less than one metre. This technology is being used to monitor changes in land use and is one of the most important inherent capabilities of remote sensing. IN DIABOLO VHR-RS is used in WP2 and WP4 to develop change detection methods.
Water Framework Directive – integrated river basin management for Europe http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html
Work package WP – group of related tasks within a project. DIABOLO is divided into 7 Workpackages. http://diabolo-project.eu/about/structure/